The theory of goal attainment was first introduced by Imogene King in the early 1960s. The theory describes a dynamic, interpersonal relationship in which a person grows and develops to attain certain life goals. To better understand the theory let us first read on the Metaparadigm in Nursing according to Imogene King.
Imogene King Goal Attainment Theory: Metaparadigm in Nursing
1. Person: Imogene King described a person existing in an open system as a spiritual being and rational thinker who makes choices, selects alternative courses of action, and has the ability to record their history through their own language and symbols, unique, holistic and have different needs, wants and goals.
According to Imogene King, human being has three fundamental needs:
a. The need for the health information that is unable at the time when it is needed and can be used
b. The need for care that seek to prevent illness
c. The need for care when human beings are unable to help themselves.
2. Health : According to Imogene King, health involves dynamic life experiences of a human being, which implies continuous adjustment to stressors in the internal and external environment through optimum use of one’s resources to achieve maximum potential for daily living.
3. Environment : It is the background for human interactions. It involves:
a. Internal environment – transforms energy to enable person to adjust to continuous external environmental changes.
b. External environment – involves formal and informal organizations. hurse is a part of the patient’s environment.
4. Nursing: Nursing for Imogene King is an act wherein the nurse interacts and communicates with the client. The nurse helps the client identify the existing health condition, exploring and agreeing on activities to promote health. The goal of the nurse in Imogene King’s theory is to help the client maintain health through health promotion and maintenance, restoration, and caring for the sick and dying.
Imogene King Goal Attainment Theory: Interacting Systems Framework
Imogene King proposed that the nurse interacts in the system simultaneously at three different levels, namely Personal, Interpersonal, and Social Frameworks. These levels are independent and at the same time co-exist to influence over-all nursing practice.
Personal- how the nurse views and integrates self based from personal goals and beliefs.
Interpersonal - how the nurse interrelates with co-worker or patient particularly in a nurse-patient relationship.
Social - how the nurse interacts with co-workers, superiors, subordinates and the client environment in general.
Propositions of Imogene King’s Theory of Goal Attainment
From the theory of goal attainment Imogene King developed predictive propositions, which includes:
- If perceptual interaction accuracy is present in nurse-patient interactions, a transaction will happen.
- If nurse and client make transaction, goal will be attained.
- If goal are attained, satisfaction will occur.
- If goals are met, efficient nursing care will happen.
- If transactions are made in nurse-client interactions, growth and development will be enhanced
- If role expectations and role performance as perceived by nurse and client are congruent, transaction will occur.
- If role conflict is experienced by nurse or client or both, stress in nurse-client interaction will occur
- If nurse with special knowledge and skill communicate appropriate information to client, mutual goal setting and goal attainment will occur.