Metaparadigms in Nursing according to Madeleine Leininger:
Person: Human beings are explained very well in her assumptions.
- Humans are believed to be caring and capable of being concerned about the desires, welfare, and continued existence of others. Human care is collective, that is, seen in all cultures.
- Humans are universally caring beings who survive in a diversity of cultures through their ability to provide universality of care in a variety of ways according to differing cultures, needs and settings.
- Recipient of care, including physical, spiritual, psychological, and sociocultural components. Should refer to families, groups, and communities
Environment: included events with meanings and interpretations given to them in particular physical, ecological, sociopolitical or cultural setting. Existing forces outside the organism and in the context of culture
Nursing: Madeleine Leininger showed her concern to nurses who do not have sufficient preparation for a transcultural perspective. For that reason, they will not be able to value nor practice such viewpoint to the fullest extent possible.
Madeleine Leininger gave three types of nursing actions that are culturally-based and thus consistent with the needs and values of the clients. These are:
- Cultural care preservation/maintenance
- Cultural care accommodation/negotiation
- Cultural care repatterning/restructuring
These three modes of action can lead to the deliverance of nursing care that best fits with the client’s culture and thus reduce cultural stress and chance for conflict between client and caregiver.
Health: Health is a key concept in transcultural nursing. Because of the weight on the need for nurses to have knowledge that is specific to the culture in which nursing is being practiced, it is acknowledged that health is seen as being universal across cultures but distinct within each culture in a way that represents the beliefs, values, and practices of the particular culture. Thus health is both universal and diverse.
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