The Neuman Systems Model provides a comprehensive, flexible, holistic, and sysmtems-based perspective for nursing. This conceptual model of nursing focuses attention on the response of the client sustem to actual or potential environmental stressors, and the use of prumary, secondary, and tertiary nursing prevention interventions for retention, attainment, and maintenan of optimal client system wellness.- Betty Neuman (1996)
Intrapersonal - occurs within the self and comprises of man as a psychospiritual being
Interpersonal – occurs between one or more individual and consists of man as a social being
System Model in Nursing Practice
The clients variables can be one or combination of the following : physiological, sociocultural, developmental and spiritual. These variables function to achieve stability in relation to the environmental stressors experienced by the client.
Lines of Resistance
Lines of Resistance act when the Normal Line of Defense is invaded by too much stressor, producing alterations in the client’s health. It acts to facilitate coping to overcome the stressors that are present within the individual.
Normal Line of Defense
To achieve the stability of the system, the Normal Line of Defense must act in coordination with the normal wellness state. It must reflect the actual range of response that is normally acted by clients in response to any stressors. It is the baseline in determining the level of wellness of client within the continuum of health.
Flexible Line of Defense
Flexible Line of Defense serve as a boundary for the Normal Line of Defense to adjust to situations that threaten the imbalance within the client’s stability. It expanded the range of normal defense from becoming invaded by the stressors thus increasing its protection.
Stressors are forces that produce tensions, alterations or potential problems causing instability within the client’s system. The importance of identifying the stressors helps nurses to appropriately use actions to address and help solve the produced problem.
Reactions are the outcomes or produced results of certain stressors and actions of the lines resistance of a client. It can be positive or negative depending on the degree of reaction the client produces to adjust and adapt with the situation. Neuman specified these reactions as negentropy or entropy. Negentropy is set towards stability or wellness while Egentropy is set towards disorganizaton of the system producing illness.